You could start by referencing a situation in which something was unfair (even if it wasn’t related to race), such as two kids not getting the same amount of ice cream. You could then say something like, “Sometimes people are treated unfairly. It can be on purpose or by accident. Either way, it doesn’t make people feel good!” You can then explain that sometimes people are not treated fairly because of the color of their skin; that is called racism. Make it clear to your child that people are equal and all people should be treated equally, no matter their race, religion, ethnicity, or other characteristics. Over time, you can empower your child to be an upstander who stands up for him/herself or others who are facing bias or racism.